According to MacIver the State seeks to fulfill three types of functions. Essay on the Local Government — Political Science Article shared by Local government means the operations of corporations, municipalities, district boards, panchayats in India and other bodies which are entrusted with the execution of functions relating to and concerning the residents of a given area or locality.
There are other functions which are of a universal character, but which for their efficient fulfillment, or on other grounds, may be assigned to the provincial governments.
These functions do not concern the community as a whole, but embrace only a portion of the total population and territorial area of the State. The extent of the territory covered and the number of persons ruled over do not make any difference in the nature of local government.
All such functions must belong to the national or central government. The efficient performance of all these functions requires local experience and knowledge of local details.
The control of local government over subjects which vitally concern the locality can never be absolute in this era of conscious, consistent and sustained process of economic and social planning. As regards the constitutional relationship between the central government and local government, the latter derives its powers from the former and is subordinate to the authority that created it.
It can make its own rules and regulations, or by-laws, to perform its functions and to control its finances.
In the first place, there are some functions which concern and affect the whole community and are of national importance. These services have reference to the local needs and it seems reasonable that the locality should have direct and fairly complete control over them.
The essence of all such functions is that they are purely local in character and need local solution in deference to the requirements of the people inhabiting that locality. Sidgwick says that the term local government in a unitary State means organs, which though completely subordinate to the central legislature, are independent of the central executive in appointment and to some extent in their decisions, and exercise a partially independent control over certain parts of public finance.
The Corporation of Calcutta or Mumbai formerly Bombay exercises its authority over a vastly greater number of people and considerably more extensive area than the Municipal Committee of Patiala or Kapurthala or a village Panchayat.
But though a subordinate body, yet it has certain independence of action within the sphere assigned to it. Subjects like education and health, for example, are local in character and require local solution, but they are really of national importance and the central government cannot remain unconcerned about them.
Lastly, there are functions which are of peculiar concern of the locality, for example, water supply, sanitation, maintenance of hospitals and libraries, running of public utility services, like supply of electric energy, tramway or omnibus transport.Essay on the Local Government – Political Science Article shared by Local government means the operations of corporations, municipalities, district boards, panchayats in India and other bodies which are entrusted with the execution of functions relating to and concerning the residents of a given area or locality.
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Local Government Essay. The State and Local Government of the City of Melbourne The City of Melbourne which has a population of about 71, is operated under the Council-Manager form of government also known as the City-Manager plan (City of Melbourne, "About Melbourne").
The Council-Manager form of government was. At a time when the nation is trying to produce workers with the skills to master new technologies and adapt to complexities of global economy, this decline in state educational investment is cause for concern, according to the authors of the study.
State and Local Government Paper POL/ University of Phoenix January 15, Introduction The city of Fountain, Colorado is a full service municipality.Download