Proposed models[ edit ] Three different models have been proposed to explain the structure of organizational justice perceptions including a two factor model, a three factor model, and a four factor model. Corporate social responsibility[ edit ] A concept related to organizational justice is corporate social responsibility CSR.
Procedural justice, a subcomponent of organizational justiceis important in communication and in the workplace because it involves fair procedures, it allows the employees to have a say in the decision process, it gives employees fair treatment, and allows them to have more input in the appraisal process.
Pure procedural justice describes situations in which there is no criterion for what constitutes a just outcome other than the procedure itself.
Additionally, research by Tom R. For example, if the procedure is a criminal trial, then the correct outcome would be conviction of the guilty and exonerating the innocent.
Interpersonal justice "reflects the degree to which people are treated with politeness, dignity, and respect by authorities and third parties involved in executing procedures or determining outcomes".
Antecedents of perceptions[ edit ] Employee participation[ edit ] One antecedent to perceptions of organizational justice is the extent to which employees feel that they are involved in decision-making or other organizational procedures. Karriker and Williams established that OCBs are directed toward either the supervisor or the organization depending on whether the perception of just stems from the supervisor or the organization.
This, in turn, will then affect how the individuals will engage with their group, with higher identification leading to discretionary and more desirable behavior. Inputs refer to what a person perceives to contribute e. The idea of the balancing model is that a fair procedure is one which reflects a fair balance between the costs of the procedure and the benefits that it produces.
In the context of a trial, for example, the participation model would require that the defendant be afforded an opportunity to be present at the trial, to put on evidence, cross examination witnesses, and so forth.
Colquitt demonstrated that a four-factor model including procedural, distributive, interpersonal, and informational justice fit the data significantly better than a two or three factor model. Mandatory behavior is defined by Tyler and Blader as behavior that is required by the group and thus is motivated by incentives and sanctions.
Organizational citizenship behavior Organizational citizenship behaviors are actions that employees take to support the organization that go above and beyond the scope of their job description.
Affect and emotions can be part of the reactions to perceived injustice, as studies have shown that the more injustice that is perceived, the higher degrees of negative emotions are experienced. With procedural justice there is a greater deal of fairness in the workplace.
The precise role of affect HH in organizational justice perceptions depends Procedural justice and ethics in employee relations the form of affectivity being examined emotions, mood, disposition as well as the context and type of justice being measured.
The use of fair procedures helps communicate that employees are valued members of the group. Greenberg proposed a two-factor model and Sweeney and McFarlin found support for a two-factor model composed of distributive and procedural justice.
Thus, the balancing approach to procedural fairness might in some circumstances be prepared to tolerate or accept false positive verdicts in order to avoid unwanted costs political associated with the administration of criminal process.
Overview[ edit ] Organizational justice is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct. It reflects the extent in which an individual perceives that outcome allocation decisions have been fairly made.
Thus, the more perceptions of procedural injustice lead employees to perceived normative conflict, the more it is likely that CWBs occur.
Affect plays this role in equity theory such that negative affective reactions act as a mediator between perceptions and actions, as emotional reactions to justice motivate individuals to take action to restore equity. Blader, incorporates past psychological theories to explain the underlying psychological processes of procedural justice.
Informational justice "focuses on explanations provided to people that convey information about why procedures were used in a certain way or why outcomes were distributed in a certain fashion".• The main purpose is to explain ethics, justice, and fair treatment in human resource management, matters essential for positive employee relations.
• Topics include ethics and fair treatment at work, factors that shape ethical behavior at work, and managers‘ roles in fostering improved workplace ethics, employee discipline, and dismissals.
Workplace procedural justice is an important motivator for employee work attitude and performance. This research examines how procedural justice affects employee engagement. We developed three propositions. First, based on the group engagement model, we hypothesized that procedural justice enhances.
Procedural justice refers to the fairness of the process. Interactional or interpersonal justice refers to “the manner in which managers conduct their interpersonal dealings with employees,” and in particular to the degree to which they treat employees with dignity as opposed to abuse or disrespect%(5).
procedural justice Justice that focuses on the fairness of the procedures used to make the decision - the extent to which the decisions are consistent across persons and overtime, free from bias, based on accurate information, correctable, and based on prevailing moral and ethical standards.
Greenberg () introduced the concept of organizational justice with regard to how an employee judges the behaviour of the organization and the employee's resulting attitude and behaviour. (e.g., if a firm makes redundant half of the workers, an employee may feel a sense of injustice with a resulting change in attitude and a drop in productivity).
Definitions Employee relations Justice All practices that implement the philosophy and policy of an organization with respect to employment Justice Maintenance or administration of what is just, often by impartial adjustment of conflicting claims or assignment of merited awards or punishment.Download